3D audience TIME.1952.JPG

When I arrived at Prof. Marty Banks' Visual Space Perception Lab Berkeley in 2001 as a new Ph.D. student, I was taught how to use stereo displays as a tool to investigate how the brain perceives depth in its visual environment. We asked our research subjects to judge the depth they perceived in different types of 3D scenes. Traditionally this was done with real physical objects which needed to be readjusted either by hand or with a motor for each of thousands of trials. Computer graphics and stereo displays provided us with the tools to complete experiments faster than ever before and investigate new types of viewing situations. To validate our research, we tried to calibrate our displays to ensure that our brains treated them like the real world, but quickly discovered that simulated graphics environments are quite different to the real world. During my years at UC Berkeley, I researched the visual perception (and misperception) of 3-D media while I saw the rise of a new craze for 3-D media.


Nintendo Warns Parents Of Eye Risks In 3-D Game, National Public Radio, January 3, 2011.

3-D Movies Can Induce Headaches and SicknessThe New York Times. February 8, 2010.

Banks, MS, DM Hoffman, R Held, AR Girshick. “Perception of 3-D cinema.” In L. Lipton (Ed.) Stereocinema, in press (2010).

Banks, MS, R Held, AR Girshick. Perception of 3-D layout in stereo displays. Information Display, 25(1), 12-6, (2009). [PDF]

Hoffman, DM, AR Girshick, K Akeley, MS Banks. Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue. Journal of Vision, 8(3):33, 1-30. (2008) [PDF]

Banks, MS, K Akeley, DM Hoffman, AR Girshick. Consequences of incorrect focus cues in stereo displays. Information Display, 24(7), 10-4, (2008). [PDF]

Watt, SJ, K Akeley, AR Girshick, MS Banks. Achieving near-correct focus cues in a 3-D display using multiple image planes. Proc. SPIE: Human Vision & Electronic Imaging, (IS&T/SPIE 5666-53). (2005) [PDF]

Banks, MS, HF Rose, D Vishwanath, AR Girshick. Where should you sit to watch a movie? Proc. SPIE: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, (IS&T/SPIE 5666-34). (2005) [PDF]

Akeley, K, SJ Watt, AR Girshick, MS Banks. A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances. (SIGGRAPH) ACM Transactions on Graphics, 23 (3), 804-11. (2004) [PDF]

Held, R, AR Girshick, MS Banks. Perceptual distortions in 3D displays. In preparation.